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March 2005   
F E A T U R E S

Interview: Dot.Com
Evan Thornley was a labour activist. Then he rode the tech wave. Now he's home with new ideas on how Labor can win the economic debate.

Workplace: Dirt Cheap
In her new book, Elizabeth Wynhausen learns how hard it is to live on the minimum wage.

Industrial: Daddy Doesnít Live With Us Anymore
Andreia Viegasí tells the story of the loss her young family has felt since her husband was killed at work, and the need for justice for families who fall victim to industrial manslaughter.

Economics: Who's Afraid of the BCA?
Big Business's agenda for Australia has gone from loopy to mainstream at the speed of light, writes Neale Towart

International: From the Wreckage
Working people across Iraq are struggling to build their own independent unions Ė and are successfully organising industrial action on the vital oil fields as well as in hotels, transport outlets and factories, Writes Andrew Casey

Politics: Infrastructure Blues
With much attention given belatedly to the shortage of infrastructure, little attention has been given to the structure of infrastructure, writes Evan Jones

History: Meat and Three Veg
A new book recounts the impact of the Depression on women workers, writes Neale Towart,

Savings: Super Seduction
Sharks are circling your super. From July 1, banks and financial planners will have access to the nesteggs of an extra four million workers, writes Jim Marr.

Politics: Popping the 'E-Word'
Federal shadow treasurer Wayne Swan unveils Labor's new economic doctrine.

Poetry: To Know Somebody
This week saw an appointment to the ABC Board that was even more breathtaking than that of Liberal Party figure Michael Kroger. Resident Bard David Peetz celebrates the occasion with a reworking of an old Bee Gees hit.

Review: Off the Rails
A new play on the impact of rail privatisation in Britain has a poignant message for Sydney commuters, writes Alex Mitchell

C O L U M N S

The Soapbox
The Big Picture
Think about this: It takes 150 tonnes of iron ore to buy a plasma TV, writes Doug Cameron.

The Locker Room
Reducto Ad Absurdo
Phil Doyle offers advice for the lovelorn, and finds that things are getting smaller

New Matilda
Work is In
The rise and fall of the working hours debate in france is relevent to Australian workers, writes Daniel Donahoo and Tim Martyn

Parliament
The Westie Wing
Our favourite MP surveys the upcoming conservative centralist collective attack.

Postcard
Postcard from Harvard
Australian union officials making the annual pilgrimage to the Harvard Trade Union Program learnt that, at least, they are not alone, says Natalie Bradbury.

E D I T O R I A L

Thatís Our Team
Hereís a test. Hands up all those who watched the news last night. Who can remember the weather forecast for tomorrow? What about the forecast in Perth?

N E W S

 Rev Kev: Innocent Shall Be Guilty

 Itís Official - Taskforce "Hopeless"

 Hollywood For Tropfest Evictees

 Miner Problem for Feds

 Students Driven to Sleep

 Brogden Dances On Graves

 Let Them Drink Beer

 Traffic Fines Parked

 The Airline That Flew a Kite

 Hundreds Resist Porridge

 Experts Back Better Childcare Pay

 Mushroom Mums Win

 Rotten Fruit Exposed

 Workers Sue Rumsfeld

 Activistís Whatís On

L E T T E R S
 Stay Terra Firma on Tax
 Janetís Job No Victory
 Royal Finger Lickers
 Will $20 Restore Carr?
 Two Ideas
WHAT YOU CAN DO
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Workplace

Dirt Cheap


In her new book, Elizabeth Wynhausen learns how hard it is to live on the minimum wage.
 

There was a time, not so long ago, when Australians prided them-selves on giving people a fair go. Now we seem more inclined to blame people for lagging behind. And there are more lagging behind than ever. According to recent figures from the United Nations, abort one in eight people in Australia live in poverty, a failure that stands in stark contrast to the successes elsewhere.

Out of seventeen highly developed nations, Australia manages to have the third-highest quality of life and the third-largest percentage of people living below the poverty line. Despite a prolonged burst of prosperity that has seen the nation with-stand worldwide economic tends, the ruthless restructuring that accounts for its new-found efficiency has left almost one in five families jobless. Those who do have work include 2.3 million casual workers who are largely denied the 'perks of per-manency -- respect, security predictability, paid holidays and sick days. More than one in four Australian workers are casuals, pining for 'perks' like job security; one in three part-time workers want more work than they have; two-thirds of young people have no choice but to enter the labour market as casuals; and the most comprehensive Australian study of the changes in the workplace wrought by twenty or so years of the vaunted economic reforms suggests that one-third of the workforce will be casually employed by the end of the current decade.

Confronted with such figures, representatives of business organisations almost invariably demand more of the same, promoting the fiction that workplace reform benefits employees by giving them more choice over the conditions of their employ-ment, a theme continued by the Howard Government. When the election of 2004 gave it effective control of both houses of parliament, the government immediately promised to press on with its program of labour market deregulation. High on the agenda is exempting businesses that employ fewer than twenty people from the unfair dismissal laws, to save small business owners the trouble of following set procedures before firing employees.

Members of the overclass who promote such reforms have only profited from them, to judge from the widening wealth gap. Unabashed, they continue to scold low-wage workers about the need for wage restraint. Unceasing in their efforts to crank up the revolution they started (as if building a new country on the unloved bones of the old), columnists on six-figure salaries rail against regular increases in the minimum wage, now $24,700 a year. Leading commentators claim that attempts to even up the widening inequalities constitute a failed form of 'social engineering' -- even, God forbid, 'a nostalgia for pre 8Os egalitarianism'. They often point to the United States to bolster the argument that keeping wages low creates jobs, but this argument was less convincing by 2004. On 19 August the New York Times reported: 'The labor market adds only a trickle of new jobs each month despite nearly three years of uninter-rupted economic growth ... there are still about a million fewer jobs in the United States than there were at the beginning of 2001.' Whether or not low-wage workers in the United States earn enough to cover the rent on a trailer home, they can more than the workers in the countries now doing most of the manufacturing.

When I returned to Australia in 1991, after living in the United States for more than a decade, I was dismayed by the signs that Australia was following its lead, with a labour market increasingly divided between an affluent elite and a low-paid service class. In a nation that had been a model of egalitarianism, fairness and equity now barely got a hearing. By 2001, more than one in eight employees were on a low wage, an indicator of working poverty that had risen substantially in the previous decade, in spite of the boom. But its victims were all but invisible. The opinion-makers had succeeded in shifting the focus from failure to success -- from those who were struggling to make ends meet to the so-called aspirational voters, who were doing a bit better. I began Dirt Cheap in the hope of telling the other side of the story, from the inside out.

In my experience as a low-wage worker, the jobs all had one thing in common: I no sooner took them on than I, like my fellow employees, seemed to be rendered invisible. I was no longer consulted on my schedule, nor burdened with explana-tions about the nature of the work I was being hired to do. I found the lack of respect for employees most noticeable in the largest company I worked for, which doesn't bode well for the other half-million or so casuals in retail, the fastest growing industry in Australia. And I left the Store only to be hired by a corporation that didn't bother to spell out the terms of my employment -- a lapse I took to be typical of its dealings with casual employees.

It was as if I existed only as part of a class of people doing menial work for minimum wages, a particular irony considering how few of the people I met identified themselves as working class. Like everyone else in society they were encouraged to think of themselves as individuals, with the freedom to sign indi-vidual contacts. The one I signed, on starting work with the hotels, was presented to me as if my signature on the piece of paper was a mere formality I wouldn't say I was pressured to sign, but doing so finalised the process that made me a permanent employee of the hotels. In effect, this workplace agreement gave the company complete call on my time, 24/7, and didn't include penalty rates for working weekends.

Although I began this book convinced that Australia was emulating the United States by creating a class of the working poor, I've since concluded that minimum-wage employees are generally protected against the real ravages of poverty as long as they work full-time. This is especially the case if they are the workers most often invoked by the advocates of deregulation, namely the 45 per cent of the low-wage workers from house-holds with a second, higher income. I didn't meet one employee washing dishes or mopping floors who went home at night to a wealthy spouse, but many of the older, married workers I met were managing to pay off mortgages on houses on the city's edge by scrimping and saving elsewhere. My friend from the egg factory owned a share of a business in her home town, and my friend from the Princess Hotel had put a deposit on a flat, after she and her husband, an invalid pensioner, had almost paid off their house. This was a far cry from the situation in the United States, where full-time employees earning five or six dollars an hour don't have recourse to the government benefits available in Australia for the working poor who, for one reason or another, are forced to work part-time.

Life on minimum wages is harsh -- perhaps those advocating freezing the wages of the lowest paid should try it for them-selves, limiting their outings to Hungry Jack's once every three months, like my colleagues at the hotel. But it was when I entered the 'zone of intermittent employment', waiting for days on end to hear if I was to get a single shift, that I met employees desperately working two jobs a day just to make ends meet. Of course, there are those who will complacently suggest that poverty ain't what it used to be, when the poor didn't have a pot to piss in, let alone a broken 'entertainment device'. I can only recommend that they spend more time with nursing home attendants doing double shifts, or with teenagers trying to support themselves -- or themselves and their tertiary studies -- on junior rates of pay.

But entranced as I had been by the prospect of doing so myself, the reality was daunting. I tried but failed to do what millions of Australians do every day, struggling to support them-selves and their families on $475 a week -- more than half the average rent for a two-bedroom flat in Melbourne or Sydney. I managed to live on my income only because I had no one else to support and no bills outstanding. I paid for my private health insurance, my home insurance, and the costs of keeping my car on the road out of my savings. I put the $1868 for the car on my credit card and tried to forget it, but $1868 is hard to forget when it takes a month to earn.

When I started this project I was presumptuous enough to believe that in trying to describe what I found, I would be keeping faith with my fellow employees. I had no idea if they would agree. Some seemed to have trouble believing that anyone would bother to write -- let alone read -- a book about their working lives. Though some were suspicious, I was often looked after by fellow employees quick to share their knowledge of the job and ready to protect me from my frequent mistakes. Such experiences helped to replace my illusions with something more profound: a gut-wrenching understanding of what it is to spend your working hours un-appreciated, underpaid and unseen.

Dirt Cheap (Pan McMillan) is avilable in all good book shops


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